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What Are Semiconductor Process Nodes? [Definitive Guide]

Process nodes refer to the size of the transistor and other micro-level components on a semiconductor chip.

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In the fast-paced world of semiconductor manufacturing, keeping up with the latest technological advancements is crucial. Innovation in this field is greatly related to the concept of process nodes. In this article, I will discuss the world of process nodes, their significance, evolution, and the latest developments in this technology.

Key Takeaways

  • Process nodes are the size of the transistor on a semiconductor chip.
  • Each new node offers improved performance, reduced power consumption, and increased capabilities.
  • Latest advancements include 3nm transitioning to 2nm and 1.4nm.

What Are Process Nodes?

Process nodes refer to the size of transistors and other components on a semiconductor chip. The term “node” is used to represent the technology’s generation and defines the size of the transistors, interconnects, and other features on the chip [1].

Intel Core i9-13900K
Intel Core i9-13900K uses 10nm process nodes (Image By Tech4Gamers)

Evolution Of Process Nodes

Here is the crucial data I have gathered for the evolution of nodes from 1999 to 2024:

Process Node Year Key Advancements and Applications
180nm 1999 Advancements in mobile and early digital devices.
130nm 2000 Improved transistor size and power efficiency.
90nm 2002 Enhanced features and battery life for mobile devices.
65nm 2005 Smaller, more efficient transistors, early smartphones.
45nm 2007 Faster, power-efficient chips for mobile and computing.
32nm 2010 Miniaturization, growth in mobile computing.
22nm 2012 Introduction of 3D tri-gate transistors.
14nm 2014 Improved transistor density and energy efficiency.
10nm 2017 Smaller transistors for energy-efficient mobile devices.
7nm 2018 High-performance processors, 5G technology, AI.
5nm 2020 Powerful and energy-efficient chips for smartphones, AI.
4nm 2021 Increased efficiency and performance
3nm 2022 The 3nm process by TSMC stands out as the most cutting-edge semiconductor technology in the industry, providing optimal power, performance, and area (PPA).
2nm 2024 TSMC plans to release it by the end of 2024

What Are The Latest Process Nodes?

As of 2024, the semiconductor industry is on the verge of transitioning to the 2nm process node. Here’s a glimpse of what I found in the world of 2nm process nodes:

  • TSMC plans to begin production of a 2nm node in late 2024, with mass production following after[2].
  • Intel also expects production in 2024[3].
  • Samsung is aiming for 2nm mass production in 2025[4].

Looking Beyond 2nm

Samsung set ambitious goals, including mass-producing 1.4nm nodes by 2027, showcasing its commitment to pushing the boundaries of semiconductor technology[5].

Related helpful sources by Tech4Gamers: 


  1. Bharat Jha (Aachen University. The Evolution of Semiconductor Nodes. Retrieved from:
  2. TSMC. Future R&D Plans. Retrieved from:
  3. Intel Technology Roadmaps and Milestones. Retrieved from:
  4. Samsung News Room. Foundry Innovations Power the Future of Big Data. Retrieved from:
  5. Samsung News Room. Samsung Electronics Unveils Plans for 1.4nm Process Technology. Retrieved from:


What is the significance of process nodes in semiconductor manufacturing?

Process nodes determine the size and characteristics of components on semiconductor chips, which in turn affect a chip’s performance, power efficiency, and capabilities.

What benefits can we expect from transitioning to the 2nm process node?

Transitioning to the 2nm process node brings increased transistor density, faster processing speeds, and reduced power consumption.

Are there any challenges in scaling semiconductor technology beyond 3nm?

Scaling semiconductor technology beyond 3nm presents technical challenges related to power leakage and heat dissipation.

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